Friday 31 January 2014

NZ Firearms Licence Requirements (Part 2) ENDORSEMENTS


Many people think that revolvers and pistols are banned in New Zealand, and that only the Armed Forces and Police are allowed to have automatic weapons that are thought-of as machine-guns. -Wrong.

The fact is that while there are strong restrictions on possession of 'Restricted Weapons' our citizens rights have not been totally removed by politicians. However it does cost cash and plenty of persistence to work through all the obstacles. - Jumping through all the hoops of police regulations that seem deliberately placed to try 'put off" anyone interested in shooting sports and guns is a lengthy process. Note:  I strongly suggest that you are your usual naturally friendly and pleasant self when dealing with police employees - as it's almost certainly not that persons fault that they have to deal with restrictive and expensive regulation.

New Zealand was not "anti-gun" in the past. Until well after the First World War, guns including pistols could be freely sold by retailers and were displayed in High Street shop windows. In 1921 The Arms Act required that pistols be registered like rifles. - Until  1974 - Bank clerks, managers and security guards were all armed (with .38"revolvers (Webleys) ). An old friend - retired gunsmith Rod Woods, has many a good story to tell - and filled-in my hazy history from a time before  I slept (as a baby) in the bottom drawer of a linen chest in London, (- to protect me from near-miss  German bombs.) - Good man Rod.

Currently there are five additional 'Endorsements' that may be applied to a licence – B,C,E,D,F.
(the basic firearms license is known as an 'A' Cat.)
'B' Cat. Is for Pistol Target Shooting. The first step is to locate a Pistol Club nearby ( ask at a Police Station or visit the web site for Pistol New Zealand) and go along on a club day – have a look and a chat.

'C' Cat. Is to collect firearms that are categorised as "Restricted" by NZ Police: Pistols, Edged weapons , Sub-Machine Guns, Machine Guns, Artillery Guns, Tanks etc. You may legally purchase, keep, and collect whatever you are interested in. Here's an important tip: - When you apply for a Collectors Endorsement – Do Not Limit yourself – as sure as eggs is eggs, some time later you'll want to buy a **##**%** ? and you'll be refused a permit because you didn't include it in your application! - You might find it helpful to join The New Zealand Antique Arms Association - they run auctions of very interesting items from time to time and their members are expert collectors!

I wrote something like " I am interested in collecting all firearms old and new, ( maybe I said antique and modern), manual, semi-auto, and full-auto – of all calibers and sizes, that are of interest for either their rarity or for their popularity." - And that is on the record for my 'C' Licence Endorsement.

'D' Cat. Is for firearms Dealers and Manufacturers / Repairers, Gun-Smiths. It is an annual renewable licence, and is restrictive in its application.

'E' Cat. Is for an "Elastic" control on an invented category of firearm called "MILITARY STYLED SEMI-AUTOMATIC" – MSSA, that was devised to make it difficult for anyone to own or shoot so called 'Assault Rifles' . Again, Please don't limit youself as to why you want an 'E' Cat. Endorsement. Write down every possible use, or you may find yourself being penalised for using it eg. for shooting possums if you left that off your application. Valid Reasons may be 3 Gun Competition IPSC, feral animal control, Military Rifle Competition, Hunting dangerous animals (wild boar, wild bulls), Shark killing, Helicopter Hunting, testing ammunition, Military Displays, Historic Re-enactment, or to allow you to actually touch an 'E' Cat Firearm owned by someone else, - etc.

An 'E' Cat firearm may not ever be used by any person other than an 'E' endorsed licence holder – Whereas a 'B' category firearm applicant must shoot that restricted firearm on at least 12 separate recorded occasions over six months before the applicant will be granted that endorsement!

The Police Arms Code defines an MSSA thus:

An MSSA is a self-loading rifle or shotgun with one or more of the following features:
. Folding or telescopic butt
. Magazine that holds, or has the appearance of holding, more than 15 cartridges for .22" rimfire
. Magazine that holds, or has the appearance of holding, more than 7 cartridges for others
. Bayonet lug
. Free standing military-style pistol grip.
. Flash suppressor

Note: There are many rifles categorised as 'A' Cat (sporting) which immediately become illegal 'E' Cats if a larger magazine is inserted.

'F' Cat. Is an endorsement that permits gun-shop employees to show/demonstrate restricted firearms to customers.

I don't know any shooter who believes that a bayonet lug , or a big magazine, ( or one that "appears" to hold more ammunition), or a "military style pistol grip", or a telescoping butt, have any relationship with making a firearm more dangerous than any other. But, there you are – somebody in Police National Headquarters must have had a phobia and the status to push that idea through Parliament.
Even odder is that the Police themselves seem to have an unhealthy affection and affectation for black rifles, telescoping butts, pistol grips, high capacity magazines, flash suppressors, face masks etc, - and for their (mis)use.

It is reported that this October 2007 Ureweras raid, involving unlawful roadblocks, illegal searches, and unlawful spy cameras, cost tax payers more than six million dollars. The Police Commissioner did apologise.

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Thursday 30 January 2014

NZ Firearms Licence Requirements - Summary & comments (Part1)

New Zealand Firearms Licence requirements.

Anyone may use a sporting firearm without a licence if they are under the immediate supervision of a licence holder who must be able to reach and control the firearm.

Anyone over the age of 16 needs a licence to have and use unsupervised both sporting rifles & shotguns and pre-charged pneumatic (PCP) air rifles. Persons between 16 and 18 need a licence to use an ordinary airgun.

There is a printed Police Arms Code available from Police Stations that outlines police requirements and safety rules. There is also 'online' information that can be printed.

The first step is enquire at your nearest Police station to arrange to attend a Firearms Safety Course and sit the safety test. If you prefer, there is an Open Polytechnic Course 'Firearms Legislation and Safety' (Course Code US9131) that on completion of Part A, you will get a Mountain Safety Council Certificate that can be used in your licence application. - This excellent course includes study of firearms, cartridges and reloading – but currently costs NZ$314..

Fill out the Application form and take to a Post Shop and pay the application fee (currently NZ126.50)

Take to your Police Station:

Application Form (and fee receipt).

Old licence (if applicable).

Safety Course Certificate.

Two passport photos.

Three identity documents, (Passport, Drivers Licence, Birth Certificate, Credit / Bank Card.)

Full contact details for two (pre-arranged) referees – one related, one not.

Police will arrange to interview your referees, - and visit you at home to interview you and check your firearms security arrangements.

The police comment that you will have difficulty being deemed 'fit and proper' if you have a history of violence, repeated involvement with drugs, been irresponsible with alcohol, a relationship with unsuitable persons, or have indicated an intent to use a firearm for self defence.(This last contention conflicts with the law as stated in the 1980 Crimes Act - but clearly states the Police requirement).

All firearms must be kept in secure storage of a standard that meets the Arms Regulations. Ammunition must be kept seperately. - They require that ammo is not locked-up with firearms.

This is all fairly involved and expensive – but wait till you see what is involved in being approved and endorsed for restricted weapons like pistols, Military Styled Semi-Autos and collectors – in part 2. - but it is all do-able provided you are patient and determined..

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Wednesday 29 January 2014


Our NZ societies well-intended wish to control and reduce violent crime and "Guns" is taking effect and has already much reduced gun ownership in the general community while concentrating firearms into two contrasting sectors at the extremes of social (and anti-social) behaviours.

Some thirty years ago anyone with a slight interest or need for firearms might own a rifle or a shotgun for an occasional back-country visit - deer or pig hunting or 'bunnie-busting'. It was in no way startling to pass a young lad on a bike with his rifle on a sling, riding down to the nearest braided river-bed for an hour or two of pest control in the fresh air, potting rabbits and possums for dog tucker.

Now, as a result of  deliberately obstructive laws - and regulations that seriously restrict anyone wishing to enjoy the green and healthy outdoors shooting sports - the possession of guns is now generally focussed into a group at either end of the behavioural scales. To legally own and use firearms requires a degree of determined effort, patience, and expense - and is dependent on the willingness of others to declare in writing to the police that they support the applicants wish to have guns.

 Folk who navigate through the process to gain their licence will have been safety-trained & certified, investigated, photographed, vouched-for by close family and independent referees, and will have installed permanent approved security in their homes.

They will be free of any mental health or anger management issues. - They will not associate with "unsuitable persons" - and will be free from problems with drugs or alcohol, and will be useful members of society. - And they will have expressed no intent to use a firearm for self-defence. The NZ Police Arms Code states: "Self-defence is not a valid reason to possess firearms."

                                     'Josie The Outlaw' talks a lot of sense from USA

 All NZ Firearms Licence Holders have been declared by the Police to be Fit And Proper to own and use Firearms.  Any license holder having additional Endorsements to use 'Restricted Weapons' will have undergone further even more intensive investigation - will have installed even stronger security safes in their home, and will be living with clear restrictions to their use of this classified firearm and ammunition, and will be subject to both planned and suprise visits to ensure their ongoing compliance with the regulations.

At the other end of the scale are the lawless bottom layer of society who completely ignore all gun laws, -  to be the biggest drain on society that they can manage. They prey on the unarmed law-abiding and vulnerable.  These 'wastes-of-space' are a constant source of violence, tragic loss, and expense, and fill our Justice and Penal systems to overflowing. I personally am aware of one such thug whos avocation was (is?) to haunt shopping malls seeking small asian women to follow home and attack and steal anything of value - knowing that they can't resist his 100kg (220lb) assault and that their cash and property would pay for his next "tinnie" and drinks.

Gang Members and associates, - predators and sociopaths - 'meth cooks' and junk dealers, violent nutters. - All take what they can and give nothing but trouble in return.

 No doubt many of these predators are 'sick' and worthy of treatment - once removed as a threat to their victims.

 The peaceful unarmed folk 'in-between'  have to call for Police help ( men with guns) and Emergency teams who, by the nature of things, - can only arrive at the scene after the crime or violent assault has happened.

 - There is good reason why the Colt Single Action Army Revolver was named "The Peacemaker" and "The Equalizer" throughout the last quarter of the 19th Century.
  Colt Single Action Army Revolver .45" Caliber (- 40 grains of Black Powder behind a big 255gn lump of lead)

Any strengthening of "Gun Laws" can only further entrench the disarming of Joe Citizen as a whole and further reduce the shrinking legal firearms ownership - while maintaining the concentration of weaponry into unlawful hands. - This is not opinion - this is fact. - In the year following the 1997 British "Gun Ban" UK violent crime rose by 69% and gun crime almost doubled.

Gun Controls and Gun Bans can only affect and limit the rights of the law-abiding - as criminals will continue to ignore the law.

Is this truly "New Zealand as we want it"?

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Tuesday 28 January 2014



Writing a earlier piece I recalled a young cop quoting the engine block story – so here I go researching the myth:

On the Guns&Ammo Forum I found these: "Just shoot the driver and leave the car alone – especially if its a classic."

and: "my idea of a warning shot is when the second guy watches his first buddy go down." quoted as from Sir George Killian.(I thought that was a Coors beer).

There's always a Joker eh (Pastafarians thank the Flying Spaghetti Monster)

The most likely origin so far is that it comes from a 1950s Dick Tracey comic strip, - or that S&W may have said that "their .357' Magnum can crack the engine block on a Mack Truck."

You see the point here is that we are talking about a handgun – not a .50"Cal armour piercing round from a high power sniper rifle. No handgun round could reliably be expected to shoot through any cars bodywork, radiator, exhaust system, various other componentry, and then pass through a complete engine block – end of story! - And that is forgetting what kind of engine, 4 or 6 cylinder, V-8, "Detroit Iron" or modern alloy block?
              - Has it stopped yet? - BONNIE & CLYDES Bullet Riddled 1934 Ford (In museum)

Of course if you hit where there is a thin cast water-jacket in either a cast iron or an alloy block, you might well crack or penetrate it – or indeed if a carburetor or distributor on an old model was hit in the right place, the engine might stop. But a lead projectile leaving a revolver or auto at around 800 – 1200 ft per sec aint going to reliably win your bet.

                            HICKOK45 shoots a 3" RUGER GP-100 .357"Magnum

It's the old issue of the movies forgetting that some things are physically impossible – so they fake it and maybe some of the audience will of-course be fooled into thinking it's real. Similarly the media song "Don't ruin a good story with the facts" keeps being sung.

In science there is a physical law that reads "Every action has an equal and opposite re-action." - This means that if an "ARE YOU FEELING LUCKY PUNK" revolver could blow the perp off his feet backwards through a plate-glass shop window – it would have a similar effect on the shooter holding onto the gun.

The reality is that when our film actor fires his blank (.357") round from his .44 Magnum sized gun, the stunt-man double is jerked backwards by ropes through a window (made of sugar) onto a heap of cardboard boxes.

I mean, there are people who believe in SantaClaus and the Easter Bunny too, and maybe still go to church.
 To be honest with you - although I've been shooting handguns for 25+ years  I realy don't enjoy shooting real .44"Magnum ammo through a real S&W revolver - it really stings my soft hands!- One cylinder-full and I'll happily pass the artillery back to its staunch, really tough owner.
Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Monday 27 January 2014

'CARBINE' WILLIAMS - M1 Carbine Inventor

Carbine Williams who worked on the M1 Carbine at Winchester had an interesting life – quiet a character!

Born David Marshall Williams in Cumberland County, North Carolina November 13 1900, as the first born of seven he worked on the family land before working in a local Blacksmiths Shop - followed by a brief time in the US Navy - until they discovered that he had lied about his age.

When seventeen he was dismissed from Military Acadamy for theft of 10,000 rounds of ammunition and several rifles, government property. He then married and was dismissed from the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad being judged to be 'mentally imbalanced' after shooting at birds with a revolver while at work'.

While operating his illegal distillery, during a raid in July 1921, a deputy marshall was shot dead resulting in Williams being charged with First Degree Murder, – A hung-jury result led him to plead guilty to a lesser Second Degree Murder charge and a 20 to 30 year sentence working on the chain-gang at Caledonia State Prison Farm.

The prison Superintendent noticed his mechanical ability while Williams was making repair parts for wardens guns from scrap metal in the prison machine shop! During this time he was able to develop his mechanical genius – staying up late into the night designing systems with the help of technical data and contacts with patent attornys supplied by his mother – and was granted several patents notably for a short stroke piston action and a floating chamber .22' conversion. His family together with the Sheriff he had surrendered to, and the widow of the shot Deputy (!) campaigned for his prison term to be commuted – leading to parole and early release in 1931.

Wikipedia tells how he worked on perfecting his designs for two years before presenting them to the War Department in Washington – where he was granted contacts for .22" floating chamber conversions to the Browning Machine Gun and the M1911 .45"ACP Pistol for training purposes.

The .22" caliber 1911 was called the Colt Ace and he also produced a kit that could be used to convert any make of M1911 to .22" rim-fire.

Recommended by General Julian Hatcher – Williams went to work at Winchester Repeating Arms in 1938, working on short piston designs as part of their team, and entered into a licensing agreement with them. Carbine Williams time as a team member at Winchester was never a happy one as he preferred to work alone, - and ongoing disputes over his patents and license agreements lead to his eventual resignation during the Korean War. - Winchester sought to get out of their agreements with him, but finally agreed to settle and pay-up and afterwards, Williams floating chamber design featured in a series of Winchester semi-auto shotgun models. His work while at Winchester centered around the short-piston design application to the M2 RIFLE and the M1 CARBINE.

                                     CARBINE WILLIAMS aged 70

In 1952 film star Jimmy Stewart played Williams part in the movie 'CARBINE WILLIAMS'. He acted as technical advisor to the film that brought his recognition and fame. The Remington 550-A semi-auto .22" used his 'Williams Chamber' to work equally well with Short, Long, & Long-Rifle ammunition. - When Williams died in 1975, he held over 50 patents - including for a non-sagging cloths-line, an electric can opener, and a mousetrap.

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Sunday 26 January 2014

Welcome to my overseas readers - G'DAY

Hi Guys - or G'DAY from down here,

 I've been found by Venezuela, Canada, Norway, Austria, UK, USA., Germany, Japan. - Wow, ain't the internet a great asset? - Now Finland and Poland have appeared - welcome folk.
Latest arrivals - a Happy & Prosperous New Year to folk from China, Belgium, France,  - Welcome - and the first of our Australian neighbors has landed on site with some friends from The Netherlands - G'Day Mates.

I have now (16th March 2014) also been found by new readers from Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Iraq, and Russia  - You are making me very happy to talk with you - so Thank You All.

 I do hope that some of my stuff is OK and that you come again - even better if you pass the word to someone else to have a look too, and support my advertisers.

 Cheers, - have a cold one with me after you've put the power tools away,

Marty K

STOPPING POWER STUDY Greg Ellifritz - What works.

A big Thank You goes to Greg Ellifritz for letting me post his study on this site.

This modern study on stopping power moves the long-standing question of which handgun caliber "does the job" - and is 'that caliber' just a "mouse-gun?" - into the new era. - I hope you will find that it sheds new light onto old-time prejudices. - There is a lot of reading, so take it slowly eh:

An Alternate Look at Handgun Stopping Power

by Greg Ellifritz
I've been interested in firearm stopping power for a very long time. I remember reading Handguns magazine back in the late 1980s when Evan Marshall was writing articles about his stopping power studies. When Marshall's first book came out in 1992, I ordered it immediately, despite the fact that I was a college student and really couldn't afford its $39 price tag. Over the years I bought all of the rest of Marshall's books as well as anything else I could find on the subject. I even have a first edition of Gunshot Injuries by Louis Lagarde published in 1915.

Are any of these better than another?
Every source I read has different recommendations. Some say Marshall's data is genius. Some say it is statistically impossible. Some like big heavy bullets. Some like lighter, faster bullets. There isn't any consensus. The more I read, the more confused I get.
One thing I remember reading that made a lot of sense to me was an article by Massad Ayoob. He came out with his own stopping power data around the time Marshall published Handgun Stopping Power. In the article, Ayoob took his critics to task. He suggested that if people didn't believe his data, they should collect their own and do their own analysis. That made sense to me. So that's just what I did. I always had a slight problem with the methodology of Marshall and Sanow's work. For consistency purposes, they ONLY included hits to the torso and ONLY included cases where the person was hit with just a single round. Multiple hits screwed up their data, so they excluded them. This led to an unrealistically high stopping power percentage, because it factored out many of the cases where a person didn't stop! I wanted to look at hits anywhere on the body and get a realistic idea of actual stopping power, no matter how many hits it took to get it. So I started collecting data.
Over a 10-year period, I kept track of stopping power results from every shooting I could find. I talked to the participants of gunfights, read police reports, attended autopsies, and scoured the newspapers, magazines, and Internet for any reliable accounts of what happened to the human body when it was shot.
I documented all of the data I could; tracking caliber, type of bullet (if known), where the bullet hit and whether or not the person was incapacitated. I also tracked fatalities, noting which bullets were more likely to kill and which were not. It was an exhaustive project, but I'm glad I did it and I'm happy to report the results of my study here.
Before I get to the details, I must give a warning. I don't have any dog in this fight! I don't sell ammo. I'm not being paid by any firearm or ammunition manufacturer. I carry a lot of different pistols for self defense. Within the last 2 weeks, I've carried a .22 magnum, a .380 auto, a .38 spl revolver, 3 different 9mm autos and a .45 auto. I don't have an axe to grind. If you are happy with your 9mm, I'm happy for you. If you think that everyone should be carrying a .45 (because they don't make a .46), I'm cool with that too. I'm just reporting the data. If you don't like it, take Mr. Ayoob's a study of your own.
A few notes on terminology...
Since it was my study, I got to determine the variables and their definitions. Here's what I looked at:
- Number of people shot
- Number of rounds that hit
- On average, how many rounds did it take for the person to stop his violent action or be incapacitated? For this number, I included hits anywhere on the body. To be considered an immediate incapacitation, I used criteria similar to Marshall's. If the attacker was striking or shooting the victim, the round needed to immediately stop the attack without another blow being thrown or shot being fired. If the person shot was in the act of running (either towards or away from the shooter), he must have fallen to the ground within five feet.
I also excluded all cases of accidental shootings or suicides. Every shot in this study took place during a military battle or an altercation with a criminal.
- What percentage of shooting incidents resulted in fatalities. For this, I included only hits to the head or torso.
- What percentage of people were not incapacitated no matter how many rounds hit them
- Accuracy. What percentage of hits was in the head or torso. I tracked this to check if variations could affect stopping power. For example, if one caliber had a huge percentage of shootings resulting in arm hits, we may expect that the stopping power of that round wouldn’t look as good as a caliber where the majority of rounds hit the head.
- One shot stop percentage - number of incapacitations divided by the number of hits the person took. Like Marshall's number, I only included hits to the torso or head in this number.
- Percentage of people who were immediately stopped with one hit to the head or torso
Here are the results.
# of people shot - 68
# of hits - 150
% of hits that were fatal - 25%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.2
% of people who were not incapacitated - 35%
One-shot-stop % - 30%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 62%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 49%
.22 (short, long and long rifle)
# of people shot - 154
# of hits - 213
% of hits that were fatal - 34%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.38
% of people who were not incapacitated - 31%
One-shot-stop % - 31%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 60%
.32 (both .32 Long and .32 ACP)
# of people shot - 25
# of hits - 38
% of hits that were fatal - 21%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.52
% of people who were not incapacitated - 40%
One-shot-stop % - 40%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 78%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 72%
.380 ACP
# of people shot - 85
# of hits - 150
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.76
% of people who were not incapacitated - 16%
One-shot-stop % - 44%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 62%
.38 Special
# of people shot - 199
# of hits - 373
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.87
% of people who were not incapacitated - 17%
One-shot-stop % - 39%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 55%
9mm Luger
# of people shot - 456
# of hits - 1121
% of hits that were fatal - 24%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.45
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 34%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 74%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 47%
.357 (both magnum and Sig)
# of people shot - 105
# of hits - 179
% of hits that were fatal - 34%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.7
% of people who were not incapacitated - 9%
One-shot-stop % - 44%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 81%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 61%
.40 S&W
# of people shot - 188
# of hits - 443
% of hits that were fatal - 25%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.36
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 45%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 52%
.45 ACP
# of people shot - 209
# of hits - 436
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.08
% of people who were not incapacitated - 14%
One-shot-stop % - 39%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 85%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 51%
.44 Magnum
# of people shot - 24
# of hits - 41
% of hits that were fatal - 26%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.71
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 59%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 88%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 53%
Rifle (all Centerfire)
# of people shot - 126
# of hits - 176
% of hits that were fatal - 68%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.4
% of people who were not incapacitated - 9%
One-shot-stop % - 58%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 81%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 80%
Shotgun (All, but 90% of results were 12 gauge)
# of people shot - 146
# of hits - 178
% of hits that were fatal - 65%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.22
% of people who were not incapacitated - 12%
One-shot-stop % - 58%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 84%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 86%

I really would have liked to break it down by individual bullet type, but I didn't have enough data points to reach a level of statistical significance. Getting accurate data on nearly 1800 shootings was hard work. I couldn't imagine breaking it down farther than what I did here. I also believe the data for the .25, .32 and .44 magnum should be viewed with suspicion. I simply don't have enough data (in comparison to the other calibers) to draw an accurate comparison. I reported the data I have, but I really don't believe that a .32 ACP incapacitates people at a higher rate than the .45 ACP!

One other thing to look at is the 9mm data. A huge number (over half) of 9mm shootings involved ball ammo. I think that skewed the results of the study in a negative manner. One can reasonable expect that FMJ ammo will not stop as well as a state of the art expanding bullet. I personally believe that the 9mm is a better stopper than the numbers here indicate, but you can make that decision for yourself based on the data presented.

Some interesting findings:
I think the most interesting statistic is the percentage of people who stopped with one shot to the torso or head. There wasn't much variation between calibers. Between the most common defensive calibers (.38, 9mm, .40, and .45) there was a spread of only eight percentage points. No matter what gun you are shooting, you can only expect a little more than half of the people you shoot to be immediately incapacitated by your first hit.

The average number of rounds until incapacitation was also remarkably similar between calibers. All the common defensive calibers required around 2 rounds on average to incapacitate. Something else to look at here is the question of how fast can the rounds be fired out of each gun. The .38 SPL probably has the slowest rate of fire (long double action revolver trigger pulls and stout recoil in small revolvers) and the fewest rounds fired to get an incapacitation (1.87). Conversely the 9mm can probably be fired fastest of the common calibers and it had the most rounds fired to get an incapacitation (2.45). The .40 (2.36) and the .45 (2.08) split the difference. It is my personal belief that there really isn't much difference between each of these calibers. It is only the fact that some guns can be fired faster than others that causes the perceived difference in stopping power. If a person takes an average of 5 seconds to stop after being hit, the defender who shoots a lighter recoiling gun can get more hits in that time period. It could be that fewer rounds would have stopped the attacker (given enough time) but the ability to fire more quickly resulted in more hits being put onto the attacker. It may not have anything to do with the stopping power of the round.

Another data piece that leads me to believe that the majority of commonly carried defensive rounds are similar in stopping power is the fact that all four have very similar failure rates. If you look at the percentage of shootings that did not result in incapacitation, the numbers are almost identical. The .38, 9mm, .40, and .45 all had failure rates of between 13% and 17%.

Some people will look at this data and say "He's telling us all to carry .22s". That's not true. Although this study showed that the percentages of people stopped with one shot are similar between almost all handgun cartridges, there's more to the story. Take a look at two numbers: the percentage of people who did not stop (no matter how many rounds were fired into them) and the one-shot-stop percentage. The lower caliber rounds (.22, .25, .32) had a failure rate that was roughly double that of the higher caliber rounds. The one-shot-stop percentage (where I considered all hits, anywhere on the body) trended generally higher as the round gets more powerful. This tells us a couple of things...
In a certain (fairly high) percentage of shootings, people stop their aggressive actions after being hit with one round regardless of caliber or shot placement. These people are likely NOT physically incapacitated by the bullet. They just don't want to be shot anymore and give up! Call it a psychological stop if you will. Any bullet or caliber combination will likely yield similar results in those cases. And fortunately for us, there are a lot of these "psychological stops" occurring. The problem we have is when we don't get a psychological stop. If our attacker fights through the pain and continues to victimize us, we might want a round that causes the most damage possible. In essence, we are relying on a "physical stop" rather than a "psychological" one. In order to physically force someone to stop their violent actions we need to either hit him in the Central Nervous System (brain or upper spine) or cause enough bleeding that he becomes unconscious. The more powerful rounds look to be better at doing this.
One other factor to consider is that the majority of these shootings did NOT involve shooting through intermediate barriers, cover or heavy clothing. If you anticipate having to do this in your life (i.e. you are a police officer and may have to shoot someone in a car), again, I would lean towards the larger or more powerful rounds.
What I believe that my numbers show is that in the majority of shootings, the person shot merely gives up without being truly incapacitated by the bullet. In such an event, almost any bullet will perform admirably. If you want to be prepared to deal with someone who won't give up so easily, or you want to be able to have good performance even after shooting through an intermediate barrier, I would skip carrying the "mouse gun" .22s, .25s and .32s.
Now compare the numbers of the handgun calibers with the numbers generated by the rifles and shotguns. For me there really isn't a stopping power debate. All handguns suck! If you want to stop someone, use a rifle or shotgun!
What matters even more than caliber is shot placement. Across all calibers, if you break down the incapacitations based on where the bullet hit you will see some useful information.
Head shots = 75% immediate incapacitation
Torso shots = 41% immediate incapacitation
Extremity shots (arms and legs) = 14% immediate incapacitation.
No matter which caliber you use, you have to hit something important in order to stop someone!

This study took me a long time and a lot of effort to complete. Despite the work it took, I'm glad I did it. The results I got from the study lead me to believe that there really isn't that much difference between most defensive handgun rounds and calibers. None is a death ray, but most work adequately...even the lowly .22s. I've stopped worrying about trying to find the "ultimate" bullet. There isn't one. And I've stopped feeling the need to strap on my .45 every time I leave the house out of fear that my 9mm doesn't have enough "stopping power." Folks, carry what you want. Caliber really isn't all that important.
Take a look at the data. I hope it helps you decide what weapon to carry. No matter which gun you choose, pick one that is reliable and train with it until you can get fast accurate hits. Nothing beyond that really matters!
You may also enjoy this Greg Ellifritz story: A Parent's Guide to School Shootings
Greg Ellifritz is the full time firearms and defensive tactics training officer for a central Ohio police department. He holds instructor or master instructor certifications in more than 75 different weapon systems, defensive tactics programs and police specialty areas. Greg has a master's degree in Public Policy and Management and is an instructor for both the Ohio Peace Officer's Training Academy and the Tactical Defense Institute.
For more information or to contact Greg, visit his training site at Active Response Training.

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Friday 24 January 2014


USA, December 14, around 11 pm - a group of young muggers surrounded their unnamed victim and demanded his cellphone and other valuables - This was in 'Bernal Heights', San Francisco, USA.  The victim did not resist but while most of the group were checking his pockets for loot, - one of them pulled a handgun and fired at the accosted man. The bullet struck him in the face - but ricocheted off and struck another of the muggers 16 year old Clifton Chatman  killing him instantly. The muggers fled the scene - leaving their dead mugger mate and the wounded robbery victim to be found by the police. The wounded man was hospitalised and has survived his injuries. - Police have arrested another 16 year old in connection with the crime.

No further information about those involved - nor any details of the weapon or caliber used are known. I'd heard of the bouncing bomb - but this is silly. However, I have read of other incidents where head-shots failed to seriously wound (- seriously? -that's not the right word.)
 This is NOT the gun used in the story above - I just thought it displays a similar theme to the muggers - and I especially liked the makers name above the grip "Desere eAgle  50." ** 

I checked maybe a dozen online reports of this story looking for facts - and they all included different photos of the reporters idea of a meaningful image - hooded muggers ( one with a revolver, two other pictures with autos, one 'auto' seemed to have a front sight red-dot facing forward, another picture of three magnum revolver rounds , and one had a street scene of young coloured guys. - So I've inserted my chosen image!

 ** I actually once saw a real IMI 'Desert Eagle' blow apart on the range - this shooter was uninjured - only his pride was hurt! - Such a great big clunky lump of metal, - I'm told they make good paper-weights when gold-plated.

- Here's another tale from "Only in America" -  'East Baton Rouge' Louisiana dated November 13, 2013. Law Enforcement Officers pulled-over an armed suspect and this is what they discovered when checking his gun:

Yup - you've spotted it - magazine loaded with the cartridges pointing backwards!

Now if only they could get that to fire backwards too it would help clean their gene-pool a little.

Aghh - is that a little mean-spirited of me? - May the Flying Spaghetti Monster place them under the care of his noodly appendage.

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Thursday 23 January 2014


 Marty has been writing pieces for his Pistol Club Journal for years – indeed he had several articles published in early editions of NEW ZEALAND GUNS magazine. He started posting these shooting and gun related stories January 2014 in his new 'blog' located at:                         

Marty says that he was taught to shoot at school in London in 1959 as part of  military cadet training ( missed 'Marksman' by one point - damn!) – and notes that 'things have changed a lot since then.' -He has hunted pigs, 'roos, and feral cats in Australia, pigeon in UK, and lots of rabbits and possums here. He adds that if he could sing like Otis Redding or Leadbelly - he'd likely not be scribbling stuff here!

He built and ran an underground pistol shooting range in central Christchurch (a location badly affected by the earthquakes) The Garden City Pistol Club dungeon . This, and being the NZ factory Agent for Glock Ges kept him busy for some years in the 1990s while also working full-time for an airline. - Gosh - that's two more stories to tell - getting police approval for 'The Dungeon' and introducing the same unwilling NZ Police to Glocks.

An endorsed (A,B,C,E) pistol shooter in Canterbury for 25 years – reloader - firearms collector – hunter - Marty enjoys researching his stories - and says he wants to promote all shooting sport as a great way of enjoying the outdoors and to celebrate the finest people you could hope to meet in any society – All of them have to pass regular in-depth investigations to be certified by NZ Police as 'fit and proper persons' - to own and use firearms .. ( What percentage of the population could pass such scrutiny - maybe less than half or a third?)

                                         Lovely people  -  Lovely music

Anyway, Marty says that he makes a supreme effort to ensure that his writings are readable and scan OK, - re-reading them at least once (mostly) - so if you are a bit of a nitpicker and spot a small error, like a missed decimal point or bad spelling - please enjoy feeling bright and cosy - but don't  keep it to yourself - pass it on to at least five friends and family members to share too.

 - Enjoy, as life is good.


- Good stories, pictures and video: on target shooter nz   


I was thinking about this post while doing the washing-up – so it might smell of 'Morning Fresh Lemon Super Concentrate' rather than the usual 'Break-Free' gun lube.

Switzerland doesn't just make watches, Cuckoo-Clocks and chocolates – while completely surrounded by the rest of Europe it stays separate and independent from the EU - and maintains that independence with a strong army and airforces.
The Swiss army is a militia. The Swiss Airforce operates more than 200 modern aircraft with peacetime strength of 1600 personnel and 20,000 reservists. Many of these aircraft operate from mountain caverns and fly from specially modified highways having lights and signs that hinge down! (- been there – seen that.). The Army can field approx 200,000 trained soldiers - as all males (females?) between 18 -34 are reservist militia and required to keep their rifle or pistol at home. When they reach the top age limit they may obtain a license to retain their issue weapon permanently as a civilian, under strong regulation. - How does New Zealand compare?

                              Sig SG-550 Stgw 90 Family of Swiss Military Rifles

                                        - Every Home should have one.

Switzerland is a neutral nation and has a Direct Democracy Government – that means that their politicians do what the voters tell them, - not the other way round like us.

Their parliamenterians are elected as administrators - not representatives. Swiss voters make their own policy and law decisions by Referenda. - That's why they have a strong and prosperous Nation – and that is why they are outside the EU – because they don't trust Euro politicians to vote or decide anything on their behalf.
                                     SWISS GUN OWNERSHIP - THE REAL STORY

While approx. 30% of Swiss households have a firearm, (10% have Handguns) – Switzerland has one of the lowest Intentional homicide rates in the world at 0.70 per 100,000 population. - Is that despite or because of this high gun ownership?

- The UK , a 'gun-free' society – recorded a Homicide Rate of 1.2 per 100,000.

  • New Zealands figure is 0.9 (and Australia is 1.0)
  • USAs figure is 4.7 per 100,000. - Ivory Coast (Africa) seems to be the highest recorded at 56.9 per 100,000.
    - Both Monaco and Palau recorded 0. - Hong-Kong, Japan and Singapore were also very low figures.
- Now, where should we go for a nice long holiday?

There used to be talk of New Zealand being "The Switzerland of the Pacific." - But, right now, - we don't compare at all well for our democracy, our military efficiency, or our firearms rights & regulation.

Marty K

Wednesday 22 January 2014

Old IPSC Cap - GLOCK 17 Advantage Arms .22" CONVERSION

I got my Pistol New Zealand 25 Year Badge last week - and pinned it onto my IPSC shooting cap, - right next to a silver Glock and my favorite, but politically incorrect badge "I Shoot Hostages" which is of course an insider joke for IPSC practical pistol shooters who might miss the odd shot- putting a hole in the white - on an old-style IPSC target flanked by two 'no-shoot' targets. Way back when (1988) IPSC shooting in NZ was run by the NZ Director of the Practical Shooting Institute - J D Henry.

 I always think that Kiwis wearing baseball style caps are missing the point as far as protection from our wicked summer sun - that burns in only minutes, (all too quickly in our clear skies) - but shooters have the excuse that they can't wear a wide brimmed sun-hat as well as hearing protector ear muffs. Living in farming country here you do see a lot of red-necked old farming types who are missing big chunks of their ears where sun damage/ melanomas have been surgically removed. - so I guess that those ear-muffs serve a double purpose for part of the year eh.

Grubby old shooting cap has seen fun times.

I've tried a few different bits of gear while under that cap - 32 round 9mm Glock 'stick magazines' - red-dot-optics, custom made compensators fitted on G17L barrels, G17 guns, borrowed race-guns,  Teflon coated projectiles, low pressure triggers - none of which seemed to make a useful time or accuracy difference to the main limiting factor - of what that cap was keeping the sun off - me!
- You've either got "It" or you don't!

- Actually - the one item that seems to be improving my shooting is this special Glock below:

Yup - You've spotted it right away again - that magazine is a big sign-post - indicating that this 3rd Generation Glock is wearing an Advantage Arms .22" rimfire conversion.

This is money well spent for me (NZ$495) as I do shoot more freely knowing that I'm only burning .22" Dollars rather than 9MM Dollars. The Advantage Arms conversion does give a good copy of a Glocks usual feel as the slide looks fairly normal but - being built of light alloy it seems to move under .22"power with much the same oompth as my 9MM reloads. The instructions that come in the nice plastic box with the slide assembly, magazine (two in my case), and cleaning kit - says which brands of ammo to use and not to use - but it seems to not be too fussy realy. I bought some packets of bargain ancient Ely target ammo that must be from the 1950s and that feeds and cycles the 'AA' Glock fine.

We run informal .22" Action Matches at our club branch and many (cheapskate!) shooters run through the stages over'n'over - sometimes going to centre fire for the last run-through.

I like the ".22" Glock" so much that I'm even thinking about buying another G17 and keeping it permanently set-up as a rimfire - I really question why Gaston Glock refuses to make a factory .22" version  - while making such a wide variety of other calibers for the different national markets.

 Crappy music  - but it shows the gun recoiling in .22". 

I'd just about guarantee that a 'factory' G17 sized .22' would sell in a big way - but - the factory knows best, I'm sure. 

Marty K.
After researching & writing 1,036 blogs I've got something NEW to try .. I've signed-up to Patreon. - In over five years I've not made one cent from this .. NOW you can send me a wee support $ - starting from $1. to get all this stuff from New Zealand - over a year that's nearly the price of one Shooting magazine. - Am I worth it?

Monday 20 January 2014

'FULLERS' on Edged Weapons. - JUNGLE CARBINE Bayonet

'FULLERS' on Edged Weapons (Blood Grooves ?)

A Fuller is actually the tool used by blacksmiths to form a groove in a sword, knife or bayonet blade.
                                   S M L E JUNGLE CARBINE BAYONET

A Fuller is used to lighten the blade without weakening it – on the principle that bending causes more stress at the edge of a blade (by leverage) than in the middle areas. - This gives lighter blades relative to size, or a stiffer blade relative to weight. A good example of this principle is an I beam.

The myth much loved by blood-thirsty correspondents is that the 'blood groove' is needed to reduce the suction resistance when pulling a blade out from the assailants body - by letting the air in and the blood out - this is total B. S.

  Recruit: Excuse me Sir, but have the Germans the same methods in bayonet fighting as us?      

- Instructor: "Lets hope so - As it's your only chance". (Punch 1917)

Terms such as "fix bayonets" and "blood groove" are useful in infantry training to focus the mind on a very personal and important life threatening situation.

A long sword blade can be made 20% to 35% lighter than a non-fullered blade without any loss of strength but this effect is much reduced in a shorter knife or bayonet. - Should the combatant find his or her blade to be 'stuck' in the torso - he/she apparently is best advised to twist & pull harder !!

By the way, - If you actually own a genuine  S.M.L.E. Jungle-Carbine Bayonet ( I do,- I bought it under advise in Sydney years ago) you might note that it is a rare item valued about the same as the rifle it fits! (Jungle Carbine Bayonets have a large ring to fit over the carbines flash suppressor).

Marty K

Sunday 19 January 2014

POMMELS On Edged Weapons. The V-42 Force ("Devils Brigade")


The pommel of a knife or sword is the 'knob' on the handle meant to stop the hand slipping-off. The weight of the pommel on a knife can be used to adjust its balance. The name is also used for the decorative top of a flagpole, the knob on the rear end of a cannon, the pommel (saddlebow) on a saddle to aid mounting, the grips on a gymnasts vaulting horse, and the lower surface of a clenched fist.

Pommeler is closely related with the verb to pummel something – meaning to beat and strike repeatedly. - So a pommel might be used to pummel something (- beat the cr*p out of somebody!)

The U S Fighting Commando Knife , Type V-42 (design copied from the Fairburne-Sykes) was built with a thumb groove or choil on the ricasso and a skull-crusher pommel.
                                                         V-42 Force Knife

It was designed by the officers of The First Special Service Force (1stSSF) a joint WW2 Canadian / US Commando Force also dramatically known as "the Devil's Brigade".

- Called also the Force Knife or V-42 Stiletto, approximately 3,000 V-42s were built by well known Knife makers 'Case' with either 7.250" or 7.125" double hollow ground blades and a leather handle.

1st SSF Shoulder Patch
Trained as parachutists in Montana, the 1stSSF were formed initially for 'Project Plough' (cancelled) to invade and liberate Norway – so were instead sent to The Aleution Islands, followed by Italy and France. - In June 1943 the unit achieved 125% in a fitness test having an average pass rate of 75%. - When the 1stSSF landed on Kiska Island in the Arctic Aleutions they found that the Japanese had evacuated.

A similar Fairburne-Sykes copy knife is the US Marine Raider Stiletto